Document Type : Original Article




As a response to content and teacher-based approaches of traditional education, outcome-based education (OBE) has emerged. Recently, the Ministry of Higher Education (MoHE) in Afghanistan has trained some university teachers on these approaches. This is going to be an ongoing process in which all the university teachers will be trained. The purpose of this study was to explore the challenges trained teachers faced in the implementation of OBE in their courses and their suggestive solutions to overcome the barriers. The participants (n=16) were selected from among the teachers who had participated in the OBE training workshop at Herat University. A desk review of the documents and semi-structured interviews were conducted to collect data for this qualitative study. The paper uses the components of constructive alignment as a framework to analyse the data. The study found that there are external challenges (i.e., top-down curricula and policies) and internal challenges (i.e., number of students and the amount of instructional time) ahead of teachers when they tried to implement OBE systems in Afghanistan. Furthermore, the study provides suggestions for both policymakers and teachers to ease the implementation of OBE-SCL in university classes.


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